Farming


Original abstracts from the papers in the database are provided below. All abstracts are drawn directly from the papers referenced. Links to access the papers are provided, although
the papers may also be available from other web sources. By providing links to other sites, the United Nations Foundation and ExxonMobil Foundation do not guarantee, approve, or endorse the information or products available on these sites.

  • Control and Ownership of Assets Within Rural Ethiopian Households

    Fafchamps and Quisumbing (2002)

    Original abstract:

    This paper investigates how the control and devolution of productive assets are allocated among husband and wife. Using detailed household data from rural Ethiopia, the authors show that assets brought to marriage, ownership of assets, control within marriage, and disposition upon death or divorce are only partly related.

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Logit, probit, tobit with 1995/96 and 1997 household surveys.

    Sample: 1,420 households (23% female-headed).

    Findings: Land that women bring with them into a marriage as assets served as a strong predictor of their control over productive assets during the marriage, including the right to rent land.

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  • Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    Van den Broeck, Newman, and Tarp (2007)

    Original abstract:

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles.

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Household fixed effects models for rice yields with 2006 Access to Resources Household Survey.

    Sample: 4,478 households (16% female-headed).

    Findings: Land-use rights positively impacted rice yields in male-headed households but not in female-headed households.

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  • Land Rights and Economic Security for Women in Vietnam

    Menon and Rodgers (2013)

    Original abstract:

    Vietnam's 1993 Land Law created a land market by granting households land-use rights which could be exchanged, leased, inherited, sold or mortgaged. This study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze whether increased land titling in women's names led to discernible improvements in women's economic security and household vulnerability. Using a matched sample of households from Vietnam's 2004 and 2008 Household Living Standards Survey, we find that on balance, land-use rights held exclusively by women or jointly by couples result in several beneficial effects including higher household expenditures, more education for girls and women, less housework, and lower household vulnerability to poverty. Results from interviews conducted in Vietnam support these conclusions, with evidence that one of the main channels through which these improvements occurred is increased bargaining power within the home.

    Intervention settings: Nationwide.

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Matched household-level datasets from Vietnam's 2004 and 2008 Household Living Standards Surveys (VHLSS).

    Sample: 9,189 households.

    Findings: Land use certification led to 5.3% higher per capita household expenditures when certificates were held by women and 3.6% higher when certificates were held by men (as compared to having no certificate). Certificates led to higher education for women, a lower proportion of women doing housework and fewer daily hours of housework. Certificates held by men and women both have an impact on poverty reduction.

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  • The Acquisition and Diffusion of Knowledge: The Case of Pest Management Training in Farmer Field Schools, Indonesia

    Feder, Murgai and Quizon (2004)

    Original abstract:

    Farmer Field Schools (FFS) are an intensive training approach introduced in the last decade in many developing countries to promote knowledge and uptake of ecologically sensible production approaches, and in particular, integrated pest management which minimises pesticide use. Because of the high training cost, the viability of the program depends crucially on the effectiveness of knowledge diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers. This paper uses panel data from Indonesia to assess the extent of diffusion of knowledge regarding integrated pest management from trained farmers to other farmers. The results confirm that better knowledge leads indeed to reduced pesticide use, and that trained farmers make a modest gain in knowledge. However, there is no significant diffusion of knowledge to other farmers who reside in the same villages as the trained farmers. These results imply that revision in the training procedures and curriculum need to be considered if the FFS approach is to become viable and effective.

    Intervention settings: Rural.

    Intervention description: Farmer field schools.

    Methodology: Difference in differences estimation.

    Sample: 320 households in villages that had not yet been exposed to farmer field schools.

    Findings: Modest effect of FFS on knowledge of participants. No effect on the knowledge of their neighbors.

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  • Commitments to Save: A Field Experiment in Rural Malawi

    Bruné, Giné, Goldberg and Yang (2011)

    Original abstract:

    This paper reports the results of a field experiment that randomly assigned smallholder cash crop farmers formal savings accounts. In collaboration with a microfinance institution in Malawi, the authors tested two primary treatments, offering either: 1)"ordinary"accounts, or 2) both ordinary and"commitment"accounts. Commitment accounts allowed customers to restrict access to their own funds until a future date of their choosing. A control group was not offered any account but was tracked alongside the treatment groups. Only the commitment treatment had statistically significant effects on subsequent outcomes. The effects were positive and large on deposits and withdrawals immediately prior to the next planting season, agricultural input use in that planting, crop sales from the subsequent harvest, and household expenditures in the period after harvest. Across the set of key outcomes, the commitment savings treatment had larger effects than the ordinary savings treatment. Additional evidence suggests that the positive impacts of commitment derive from keeping funds from being shared with one's social network.

    Intervention settings: Rural.

    Intervention description: Provided either an ordinary savings account to rural smallholders with direct deposits of sales revenue from participating agri-businesses or both an ordinary savings account and a "commitment" savings account.

    Methodology: RCT.

    Sample: 3,150 (6% women) poor and low-middle income farmers in 299 clubs.

    Findings: Increased land under cultivation (9.8%), use of agricultural inputs (26.2%), crop sales from subsequent harvest (22%), and HH expenditure during post-harvest (17.4%). No gender-specific effects are reported.

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