Farming


Original abstracts from the papers in the database are provided below. All abstracts are drawn directly from the papers referenced. Links to access the papers are provided, although
the papers may also be available from other web sources. By providing links to other sites, the United Nations Foundation and ExxonMobil Foundation do not guarantee, approve, or endorse the information or products available on these sites.

  • Women's Inheritance Rights and Intergenerational Transmission of Resources in India

    Deininger et al. (2012)

    Original abstract:

    We use inheritance patterns over three generations of individuals to assess the impact of changes in the Hindu Succession Act that grant daughters equal coparcenary birth rights in joint family property that were denied to daughters in the past. We show that the amendment significantly increased daughters' likelihood to inherit land, but that even after the amendment, substantial bias persists. Our results also indicate a robust increase in educational attainment of daughters, suggesting an alternative channel of wealth transfer.

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Fixed effects model using 2006 Rural Economic and Demographic Survey.

    Sample:

    Findings: A legal reform giving daughters greater rights to inherit land (Hindu Succession Act) led to an increase in girls' educational attainment. The reform did not fully compensate for the existing gender bias in land inheritance, suggesting the need for further study of the channels through which land law reforms change household behaviors.

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  • How Access to Credit Affects Self-Employment: Differences by Gender during India's Rural Banking Reform

    Menon and Rodgers (2011)

    Original abstract:

    Household survey data for 1983-2000 from India's National Sample Survey Organization are used to examine the impact of credit on self-employment among men and women in rural labor households. Results indicate that credit access encourages women's self-employment as own- account workers and employers, while it discourages men's self-employment as unpaid family workers. Ownership of land, a key form of collateral, also serves as a strong predictor of self- employment. Among the lower castes in India, self-employment is less likely for scheduled castes prone to wage activity, but more likely for scheduled tribes prone to entrepreneurial work.

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling and credit.

    Methodology: Instrumental variable probit models for likelihood of being self-employed with 1983-2000 NSSO.

    Sample: 408,385 individuals (43% women).

    Findings: Credit access encourages women's self-employment as own-account workers and employers; land ownership also serves as a strong predictor of self-employment.

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  • Impacts of Land Certification on Tenure, Security, Investment, and Land Markets: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Deininger, Ali and Alemu (2009)

    Original abstract:

    While early attempts at land titling in Africa were often unsuccessful, the need to secure land rights has kindled renewed interest, in view of increased demand for land, a range of individual and communal rights available under new laws, and reduced costs from combining information technology with participatory methods. We used a difference-in-difference approach to assess the effects of a low-cost land registration program in Ethiopia, which covered some 20 million plots over five years, on investment. Despite policy constraints, the program increased land-related investment and yielded benefits significantly above the cost of implementation.

    Intervention settings: Rural: East Gojjam zone of the Amhara region.

    Intervention description: Low-cost land registration scheme covering 20 million plots over 5 years.

    Methodology: Difference in differences estimation using four rounds of panel survey data spanning 8 years.

    Sample: 900 plots owned by households from 7 villages in 3 districts.

    Findings: Significant positive effect on the three outcomes examined: i.e., perceived tenure security, land-related investments and participation in land rental markets.

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  • Women's Property Rights and Gendered Policies: Implications for Women's Long-Term Welfare in Rural Tanzania

    Peterman (2011)

    Original abstract:

    This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Results are not limited to sub-groups of marginalised women. Findings indicate lack of gender equity in sub-Saharan Africa may inhibit economic development for women and society as a whole.

    Intervention settings: Rural.

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Individual-level fixed effects models with 1991-94 and 2004 Kagera Health and Development Survey.

    Sample:

    Findings: Stronger property and inheritance rights for women are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Property and inheritance rights in Tanzania were strengthened in 1999 with a land reform act that shifted the administration of land registration and titling to the village level. Women also gained land rights through the Law of Marriage Act, which allowed women to hold and sell property. However, customary law is stronger than formal laws in governing women's right to land. In local communities where cultural and economic development indicators favored women, women were more likely to be employed and to have higher earnings.

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  • How High Are Rates of Return to Fertilizer? Evidence from Field Experiments in Kenya

    Duflo, Kremer and Robinson (2008)

    Original abstract:

    N/A

    Intervention settings: Rural: Busia district.

    Intervention description: Free fertilizer and hybrid seeds provided to randomly selected farmers. Assistance in applying the inputs correctly and harvesting the crops.

    Methodology: RCT.

    Sample: 673 farmers with children enrolled in schools (randomly selected from school enrollment list).

    Findings: Median increased in yields from 9% to 49% (depending on the fertilizer treatment). However, median rates of return were positive for only one of the treatments.

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