Original abstracts from the papers in the database are provided below. All abstracts are drawn directly from the papers referenced. Links to access the papers are provided, although
the papers may also be available from other web sources. By providing links to other sites, the United Nations Foundation and ExxonMobil Foundation do not guarantee, approve, or endorse the information or products available on these sites.
Land Rights and Economic Security for Women in VietnamMenon and Rodgers (2013)
Vietnam's 1993 Land Law created a land market by granting households land-use rights which could be exchanged, leased, inherited, sold or mortgaged. This study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze whether increased land titling in women's names led to discernible improvements in women's economic security and household vulnerability. Using a matched sample of households from Vietnam's 2004 and 2008 Household Living Standards Survey, we find that on balance, land-use rights held exclusively by women or jointly by couples result in several beneficial effects including higher household expenditures, more education for girls and women, less housework, and lower household vulnerability to poverty. Results from interviews conducted in Vietnam support these conclusions, with evidence that one of the main channels through which these improvements occurred is increased bargaining power within the home.
Intervention settings: Nationwide.
Intervention description: Land titling.
Methodology: Matched household-level datasets from Vietnam's 2004 and 2008 Household Living Standards Surveys (VHLSS).
Sample: 9,189 households.
Findings: Land use certification led to 5.3% higher per capita household expenditures when certificates were held by women and 3.6% higher when certificates were held by men (as compared to having no certificate). Certificates led to higher education for women, a lower proportion of women doing housework and fewer daily hours of housework. Certificates held by men and women both have an impact on poverty reduction.
The Acquisition and Diffusion of Knowledge: The Case of Pest Management Training in Farmer Field Schools, IndonesiaFeder, Murgai and Quizon (2004)
Farmer Field Schools (FFS) are an intensive training approach introduced in the last decade in many developing countries to promote knowledge and uptake of ecologically sensible production approaches, and in particular, integrated pest management which minimises pesticide use. Because of the high training cost, the viability of the program depends crucially on the effectiveness of knowledge diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers. This paper uses panel data from Indonesia to assess the extent of diffusion of knowledge regarding integrated pest management from trained farmers to other farmers. The results confirm that better knowledge leads indeed to reduced pesticide use, and that trained farmers make a modest gain in knowledge. However, there is no significant diffusion of knowledge to other farmers who reside in the same villages as the trained farmers. These results imply that revision in the training procedures and curriculum need to be considered if the FFS approach is to become viable and effective.
Intervention settings: Rural.
Intervention description: Farmer field schools.
Methodology: Difference in differences estimation.
Sample: 320 households in villages that had not yet been exposed to farmer field schools.
Findings: Modest effect of FFS on knowledge of participants. No effect on the knowledge of their neighbors.
Bruné, Giné, Goldberg and Yang (2011)
This paper reports the results of a field experiment that randomly assigned smallholder cash crop farmers formal savings accounts. In collaboration with a microfinance institution in Malawi, the authors tested two primary treatments, offering either: 1)"ordinary"accounts, or 2) both ordinary and"commitment"accounts. Commitment accounts allowed customers to restrict access to their own funds until a future date of their choosing. A control group was not offered any account but was tracked alongside the treatment groups. Only the commitment treatment had statistically significant effects on subsequent outcomes. The effects were positive and large on deposits and withdrawals immediately prior to the next planting season, agricultural input use in that planting, crop sales from the subsequent harvest, and household expenditures in the period after harvest. Across the set of key outcomes, the commitment savings treatment had larger effects than the ordinary savings treatment. Additional evidence suggests that the positive impacts of commitment derive from keeping funds from being shared with one's social network.
Intervention settings: Rural.
Intervention description: Provided either an ordinary savings account to rural smallholders with direct deposits of sales revenue from participating agri-businesses or both an ordinary savings account and a "commitment" savings account.
Sample: 3,150 (6% women) poor and low-middle income farmers in 299 clubs.
Findings: Increased land under cultivation (9.8%), use of agricultural inputs (26.2%), crop sales from subsequent harvest (22%), and HH expenditure during post-harvest (17.4%). No gender-specific effects are reported.
(In) Efficiency in Intra-household AllocationsAkresh (2008)
In years with negative rainfall shocks, households increase labour on women-controlled plots (follow up to Udry 1996).
Fertility Responses to Land Titling Programs: The Roles of Ownership Security and the Distribution of Household AssetsField (2003)
This paper examines the link between intra-household allocation of ownership rights and fertility using data from a nation-wide titling program in Peru. A stated objective of the program was to improve gender inequality of property ownership by including female names on land titles. I use data from the target population of urban poor to study whether improvements in ownership equality were associated with changes in household decision-making and fertility behavior. I find that women in program regions are 50% more likely to appear as owners on property documents and 30% more likely to participate in household decision-making. My estimates indicate that land titling is also associated with a significant and sharp reduction in annual births among program beneficiaries of 21% in the year prior to the survey, and a 19% reduction in birth rates two years prior to the survey among households titled early in the program. Meanwhile, annual birth rates corresponding to children two years and older exhibit no significant differences according to whether the household resides in an early program neighborhood and is eligible for participation, consistent with the hypothesis that the program is responsible for the trend. In addition to changes in female ownership, three other channels of impact are examined: the effect of titling on household labor force participation, wealth, and tenure-security related demand for children. Instrumental variables estimates provide evidence that increases in female bargaining power are at least partially responsible for the fertility decline associated with titling.
Intervention description: Land titling.
Methodology: Difference in differences with 1997 household survey (LSMS).
Sample: 2,750 female-headed households and 4,433 women.
Findings: Peru's national land titling program led to a significant increase in the incidence of women's names on property documents and in women's decision-making power within the home. It also led to fertility declines.