Farming


Original abstracts from the papers in the database are provided below. All abstracts are drawn directly from the papers referenced. Links to access the papers are provided, although
the papers may also be available from other web sources. By providing links to other sites, the United Nations Foundation and ExxonMobil Foundation do not guarantee, approve, or endorse the information or products available on these sites.

  • Asset Ownership and Egalitarian Decision Making in Dual-headed Households in Ecuador

    Deere and Twyman (2012)

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Logit models with 2010 Ecuador Household Asset Survey.

    Sample: 2,892 households (25% women-headed, 68% jointly headed, 7% male-headed).

    Findings: Women's share of couples' wealth was positively and significantly associated with the likelihood of joint decision-making regarding their decision to work and to spend income.

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  • Inheritance Practices and Gender Differences in Poverty and Well-Being in Rural Ethiopia

    Kumar and Quisumbing (2012)

    Original abstract:

    This article examines the role of men's and women's asset inheritance in poverty and well-being in rural Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (1997, 2004, and 2009) are used to investigate the following. (i) What is the long-term impact of gender differentials in inheritance on household consumption, poverty and food security? (ii) Are there significant differences in poverty and well-being between male-and female-headed households? The most important finding is that it is the amounts of inheritance received, and not whether women inherit at all, that have the most profound impacts. The area of land inherited is particularly important for women's long-term well-being. These findings underscore the importance of women's rights to inherit equally with men.

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Probit and OLS models with Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (1997, 2004, 2009).

    Sample: 1,300 households (32% female-headed).

    Findings: Area of land inherited is a key determinant of women's long term well-being.

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  • Land Ownership and Farm Management in Ecuador: Egalitarian Family Farming Systems and Gendered Constraints

    Deere and Twyman (2012)

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Logit models with 2010 Ecuador Household Asset Survey .

    Sample: 2,892 households (25% women-headed, 68% jointly headed, 7% male-headed).

    Findings: Joint land ownership, as opposed to individual ownership, was a positive and statistically significant predictor of household decisions about crop cultivation.

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  • Wives' Economic Decision-Making Power in the Family: Five Asian Countries

    Mason (2003)

    Original abstract:

    This paper analyzes multiple measures of married women's empowerment in the domestic sphere in 56 communities spanning five Asian countries (India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand). At issue is whether community or individual characteristics are better predictors of women's empowerment, and whether different dimensions of empowerment are similarly related to community or individual traits. The analysis shows that, consistent with the theoretical approach employed here, which treats gender relations as heavily influenced by community norms and values, community is a far stronger predictor of women's empowerment than are individual traits. The relationship of both community and individual traits to different measures of empowerment vary, suggesting that "empowerment" is inherently a multi- dimensional phenomenon, with women relatively empowered in some spheres but not in others. The primary policy implication is the importance of changing community norms and values about gender relations for empowering women. The results also suggest that policies to raise women's age at marriage, enhance their educations and open greater employment opportunities will also help to empower them, at least in some respects.

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: OLS regressions of wives' domestic economic power with 1993-94, authors' own survey.

    Sample: 7,287 women from five countries.

    Findings: Land ownership has positive impact on women's authority in making household-expenditure decisions in India and Thailand.

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  • Women's Inheritance Rights and Intergenerational Transmission of Resources in India

    Deininger et al. (2012)

    Original abstract:

    We use inheritance patterns over three generations of individuals to assess the impact of changes in the Hindu Succession Act that grant daughters equal coparcenary birth rights in joint family property that were denied to daughters in the past. We show that the amendment significantly increased daughters' likelihood to inherit land, but that even after the amendment, substantial bias persists. Our results also indicate a robust increase in educational attainment of daughters, suggesting an alternative channel of wealth transfer.

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Fixed effects model using 2006 Rural Economic and Demographic Survey.

    Sample:

    Findings: A legal reform giving daughters greater rights to inherit land (Hindu Succession Act) led to an increase in girls' educational attainment. The reform did not fully compensate for the existing gender bias in land inheritance, suggesting the need for further study of the channels through which land law reforms change household behaviors.

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