Farming


Original abstracts from the papers in the database are provided below. All abstracts are drawn directly from the papers referenced. Links to access the papers are provided, although
the papers may also be available from other web sources. By providing links to other sites, the United Nations Foundation and ExxonMobil Foundation do not guarantee, approve, or endorse the information or products available on these sites.

  • Impacts of Land Certification on Tenure, Security, Investment, and Land Markets: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Deininger, Ali and Alemu (2009)

    Original abstract:

    While early attempts at land titling in Africa were often unsuccessful, the need to secure land rights has kindled renewed interest, in view of increased demand for land, a range of individual and communal rights available under new laws, and reduced costs from combining information technology with participatory methods. We used a difference-in-difference approach to assess the effects of a low-cost land registration program in Ethiopia, which covered some 20 million plots over five years, on investment. Despite policy constraints, the program increased land-related investment and yielded benefits significantly above the cost of implementation.

    Intervention settings: Rural: East Gojjam zone of the Amhara region.

    Intervention description: Low-cost land registration scheme covering 20 million plots over 5 years.

    Methodology: Difference in differences estimation using four rounds of panel survey data spanning 8 years.

    Sample: 900 plots owned by households from 7 villages in 3 districts.

    Findings: Significant positive effect on the three outcomes examined: i.e., perceived tenure security, land-related investments and participation in land rental markets.

    More Details
  • Women's Property Rights and Gendered Policies: Implications for Women's Long-Term Welfare in Rural Tanzania

    Peterman (2011)

    Original abstract:

    This paper evaluates effects of community-level women's property and inheritance rights on women's economic outcomes using a 13 year longitudinal panel from rural Tanzania. In the preferred model specification, inverse probability weighting is applied to a woman-level fixed effects model to control for individual-level time invariant heterogeneity and attrition. Results indicate that changes in women's property and inheritance rights are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Results are not limited to sub-groups of marginalised women. Findings indicate lack of gender equity in sub-Saharan Africa may inhibit economic development for women and society as a whole.

    Intervention settings: Rural.

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Individual-level fixed effects models with 1991-94 and 2004 Kagera Health and Development Survey.

    Sample:

    Findings: Stronger property and inheritance rights for women are significantly associated with women's employment outside the home, self-employment and earnings. Property and inheritance rights in Tanzania were strengthened in 1999 with a land reform act that shifted the administration of land registration and titling to the village level. Women also gained land rights through the Law of Marriage Act, which allowed women to hold and sell property. However, customary law is stronger than formal laws in governing women's right to land. In local communities where cultural and economic development indicators favored women, women were more likely to be employed and to have higher earnings.

    More Details
  • How High Are Rates of Return to Fertilizer? Evidence from Field Experiments in Kenya

    Duflo, Kremer and Robinson (2008)

    Original abstract:

    N/A

    Intervention settings: Rural: Busia district.

    Intervention description: Free fertilizer and hybrid seeds provided to randomly selected farmers. Assistance in applying the inputs correctly and harvesting the crops.

    Methodology: RCT.

    Sample: 673 farmers with children enrolled in schools (randomly selected from school enrollment list).

    Findings: Median increased in yields from 9% to 49% (depending on the fertilizer treatment). However, median rates of return were positive for only one of the treatments.

    More Details
  • Widowhood and Asset Inheritance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Evidence from 15 Countries

    Peterman (2012)

    Original abstract:

    Widows in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are perceived to face widespread discrimination in asset and property inheritance following the death of a spouse, leading to poverty for themselves and their children. However, large-sample empirical research directly supporting this claim is scarce. This paper explores levels, determinants and effects of asset inheritance among widows using data from two sources: 1) cross-country, nationally representative demographic and health survey (DHS) data from 15 SSA countries to assess levels and correlates of asset inheritance among ever widowed women aged 15-49; and 2) a 13-year longitudinal panel from the Kagera region in northwest Tanzania to examine the relationship between inheritance and levels of household per capita consumption and value of asset stocks. Results indicate that, across the 15 DHS countries, less than half of widows report inheriting any assets (average inheritance of any assets is 47 percent, ranging from 22 percent in Sierra Leone to 66 percent in Rwanda); the proportion reporting inheriting the majority of assets is lower (average of 32 percent, ranging from 13 percent in Sierra Leone to 60 percent in Rwanda). Across countries, inheritance is generally correlated with higher age, education and wealth, indicating that women with higher socioeconomic status may be more likely to negotiate favourable asset inheritance outcomes. Findings from Kagera indicate that the value of inheritances, especially for widows (and specifically land inheritance), is significant in determining changes in long-term household welfare when accounting for sources of unobservable community- and individual-level bias. Taken together, findings indicate a major role for creative and culturally sensitive programme design to protect widow asset inheritance through property and family law, coupled with rigorous impact evaluation to document effectiveness of these programmes.

    Intervention settings:

    Intervention description: Land titling.

    Methodology: Individual level fixed effects models.

    Sample: 8,725 widows (DHS) and 946 women in Kagera.

    Findings: Land inheritance is positively associated with higher levels of per capita household consumption and asset stocks for widows in SSA.

    More Details
  • Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya

    Duflo, Kremer and Robinson (2009)

    Original abstract:

    While many developing-country policymakers see heavy fertilizer subsidies as critical to raising agricultural productivity, most economists see them as distortionary, regressive, environmentally unsound, and argue that they result in politicized, inefficient distribution of fertilizer supply. We model farmers as facing small fixed costs of purchasing fertilizer, and assume some are stochastically present-biased and not fully sophisticated about this bias. Even when relatively patient, such farmers may procrastinate, postponing fertilizer purchases until later periods, when they may be too impatient to purchase fertilizer. Consistent with the model, many farmers in Western Kenya fail to take advantage of apparently profitable fertilizer investments, but they do invest in response to small, time-limited discounts on the cost of acquiring fertilizer (free delivery) just after harvest. Later discounts have a smaller impact, and when given a choice of price schedules, many farmers choose schedules that induce advance purchase. Calibration suggests such small, time-limited discounts yield higher welfare than either laissez faire or heavy subsidies by helping present-biased farmers commit to fertilizer use without inducing those with standard preferences to substantially overuse fertilizer.

    Intervention settings: Rural: Busia district.

    Intervention description: Farmers randomly offered one of the following: the chance to purchase a voucher immediately after the harvest, the chance to purchase at the time of their choosing, fertilizer at regular price with free delivery 2-4 months after harvest or fertilizer at a 50% subsidy with free delivery 2-4 months after harvest.

    Methodology: RCT.

    Sample: 924 farmers (841 in follow-up) with children enrolled in 16 local schools.

    Findings: Fertilizer use increased in every group (from 14-22% on a base of 23%), except for the group allowed to purchase fertilizer at the regular price.

    More Details