Young Women's Employment
Original abstracts from the papers in the database are provided below. All abstracts are drawn directly from the papers referenced. Links to access the papers are provided, although
the papers may also be available from other web sources. By providing links to other sites, the United Nations Foundation and ExxonMobil Foundation do not guarantee, approve, or endorse the information or products available on these sites.
Attanasio, Kugler and Meghir (2008)
Youth unemployment in Latin America is exceptionally high, as much as 50% among the poor. Vocational training may be the best chance to help unemployed young people at the bottom of the income distribution. This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized training program for disadvantaged youth introduced in Colombia in 2005 on the employment and earnings of trainees. This is one of a couple of randomized training trials conducted in developing countries and, thus, offers a unique opportunity to examine the causal impact of training in a developing country context. We use originally collected data on individuals randomly offered and not offered training. We find that the program raises earnings and employment for both men and women, with larger effects on women. Women offered training earn about 18% more than those not offered training, while men offered training earn about 8% more than men not offered training. Much of the earnings increases for both men and women are related to increased employment in formal sector jobs following training. The benefits of training are greater when individuals spend more time doing on-the-job training, while hours of training in the classroom have no impact on the returns to training. Cost-benefit analysis of these results suggests that the program generates a large net gain, especially for women.
Intervention settings: Urban
Intervention description: Three months of classroom training followed by three months of OJT in the form of unpaid internship, with 1009 companies participating.
Sample: Unemployed youth from families in the two lowest deciles of the income distribution, from 2001-2005.
Findings: Increased earnings for men and women, with the largest effects for women. Earnings for women increased on average 18%. Men and women who were offered training (intent-to-treat estimates) were more likely to be employed and to have jobs that offered benefits and to have a formal wage contract. Benefits of OJT found to be higher than that of classroom training.
Study of Self-employed Women's Association (SEWA) program in IndiaBaldawi
Intervention settings: Rural
Intervention description: Program provided health care, child care, banking and insurance services.
Methodology: Cross-sectional comparisons of participants and non-participants, and participants' reports on how program changed their lives.
Sample: Mothers and children who attended centers in two districts 10 years ago.
Findings: 42%-53% of mothers report increased productivity, employment days and family savings.
Gender and Racial Discrimination in Hiring: A Pseudo Audit Study for Three Selected Occupations in Metropolitan LimaNopo, Robels, and Saavedra (2007)
In this paper, we adapt the audit studies methodology to analyze gender and racial differences in hiring for a particular segment of the market of three selected occupations in Metropolitan Lima: salespersons, secretaries and (accounting and administrative) assistants. The adapted pseudo-audit study methodology allows us to reduce the room for existence of statistical discrimination. The results suggest the existence of no significant differences in hiring rates for different gender-race groups but some systematic (and significant) differences in the aimed wages of the individuals in their job search processes.
Intervention settings: Urban
Intervention description: Provides classroom training and internships lasting three months. Trainees receive stipend during training period, with mothers of young children receiving double stipend. Focus on training females for traditionally male occupations.
Methodology: Two-stage matching procedure that first selects for each treated a matched control on the basis of similarity in preprogram hourly wages
Sample: Technicians and professionals from middle and lower classes in Lima; 80% have an above high-school education.
Findings: Positive employment impacts for women of 6% at 12 months and 15% at 18 months. Negative impacts for men. After 18 months, beneficiary females generate 93% more labor income than their control counterparts. Decrease in measures of occupational segregation.
Revenga, Riboud, and Tan (1994)
This paper analyzes the impact and effectiveness of the Mexican Labor Retraining Program for Unemployed and Displaced Workers (PROBECAT). The strategy followed is to compare the post- training labor market experiences of trainees with those of a comparison group--a matched sample of unemployed individuals who were eligible for, but did not participate in, the PROBECAT program. The results of this exercise suggest that participation in PROBECAT reduced the mean duration of unemployment for both male and female trainees, and increased the monthly earnings of males, but not offemales. Theresultsalsoindicatethatthepost-training earnings effect varied systematically by level of schooling attainment, with the largest earnings increases (of about 28 to 37 percent) found for males with 6 to 12 years of education.
Intervention settings: Urban
Intervention description: Short-term vocational education training.
Methodology: Cox proportional hazards model estimated on participants and matched nonparticipants (based on propensity score).
Sample: Youth and adults. Offered to 250,000 registered unemployed people age 20-55, selected on basis of eligibility index.
Findings: Program trainees found jobs more quickly. Impacts mainly for trainees older than 25 with work experience. Cost effective for women over 25, but not for younger women.
Job Generation for Young Women: Impact Evaluation of a Training and Voucher Program in JordanMcKenzie (2011)
Intervention settings: Mixed
Intervention description: Training and vouchers.
Sample: 1,395 young women college graduates.
Findings: Results forthcoming.