Young Women's Employment
Original abstracts from the papers in the database are provided below. All abstracts are drawn directly from the papers referenced. Links to access the papers are provided, although
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Study of Self-employed Women's Association (SEWA) program in IndiaBaldawi
Intervention settings: Rural
Intervention description: Program provided health care, child care, banking and insurance services.
Methodology: Cross-sectional comparisons of participants and non-participants, and participants' reports on how program changed their lives.
Sample: Mothers and children who attended centers in two districts 10 years ago.
Findings: 42%-53% of mothers report increased productivity, employment days and family savings.
Gender and Racial Discrimination in Hiring: A Pseudo Audit Study for Three Selected Occupations in Metropolitan LimaNopo, Robels, and Saavedra (2007)
In this paper, we adapt the audit studies methodology to analyze gender and racial differences in hiring for a particular segment of the market of three selected occupations in Metropolitan Lima: salespersons, secretaries and (accounting and administrative) assistants. The adapted pseudo-audit study methodology allows us to reduce the room for existence of statistical discrimination. The results suggest the existence of no significant differences in hiring rates for different gender-race groups but some systematic (and significant) differences in the aimed wages of the individuals in their job search processes.
Intervention settings: Urban
Intervention description: Provides classroom training and internships lasting three months. Trainees receive stipend during training period, with mothers of young children receiving double stipend. Focus on training females for traditionally male occupations.
Methodology: Two-stage matching procedure that first selects for each treated a matched control on the basis of similarity in preprogram hourly wages
Sample: Technicians and professionals from middle and lower classes in Lima; 80% have an above high-school education.
Findings: Positive employment impacts for women of 6% at 12 months and 15% at 18 months. Negative impacts for men. After 18 months, beneficiary females generate 93% more labor income than their control counterparts. Decrease in measures of occupational segregation.
Revenga, Riboud, and Tan (1994)
This paper analyzes the impact and effectiveness of the Mexican Labor Retraining Program for Unemployed and Displaced Workers (PROBECAT). The strategy followed is to compare the post- training labor market experiences of trainees with those of a comparison group--a matched sample of unemployed individuals who were eligible for, but did not participate in, the PROBECAT program. The results of this exercise suggest that participation in PROBECAT reduced the mean duration of unemployment for both male and female trainees, and increased the monthly earnings of males, but not offemales. Theresultsalsoindicatethatthepost-training earnings effect varied systematically by level of schooling attainment, with the largest earnings increases (of about 28 to 37 percent) found for males with 6 to 12 years of education.
Intervention settings: Urban
Intervention description: Short-term vocational education training.
Methodology: Cox proportional hazards model estimated on participants and matched nonparticipants (based on propensity score).
Sample: Youth and adults. Offered to 250,000 registered unemployed people age 20-55, selected on basis of eligibility index.
Findings: Program trainees found jobs more quickly. Impacts mainly for trainees older than 25 with work experience. Cost effective for women over 25, but not for younger women.
Job Generation for Young Women: Impact Evaluation of a Training and Voucher Program in JordanMcKenzie (2011)
Intervention settings: Mixed
Intervention description: Training and vouchers.
Sample: 1,395 young women college graduates.
Findings: Results forthcoming.
Gonzalez-Velosa et al (2012)
Job training programs for vulnerable youth are the main response of Latin American governments to address the problem of inadequate employment opportunities for young people. Despite its importance, knowledge about these programs is scarce. This study contributes to filling this gap in the literature by presenting new evidence on the effectiveness of six of these programs operating or that were implemented in Colombia, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru and Dominican Republic. This analysis uses the results of impact evaluations of these programs and the results of qualitative surveys of young participants and employers, and in-depth interviews to training centers, employers and policy makers. The main results confirm the limited evidence available, namely, that these programs have little impact on the probability of getting a job (although there is a high heterogeneity in these impacts), but a significant impact on job quality. From this analysis, we propose a research agenda to improve knowledge on the functioning and impact of these programs, and provide a series of recommendations to improve the design and increase the effectiveness of youth training programs.
Intervention settings: Mixed
Intervention description: Vocational classroom and on-the-job training and job placement.
Sample: Youth and adults. Offered to men and women 16-29 years old from lower socioeconomic strata, and those meeting educational and skill requirements of participating firms.
Findings: 7%-12% increase in employment for women only. Three to seven hours per week increase in weekly hours worked for women only. Especially successful in countries with established private vocational training industry, significant wage employment and high female mobility.