Land Rights and Economic Security for Women in Vietnam

Vietnam's 1993 Land Law created a land market by granting households land-use rights which could be exchanged, leased, inherited, sold or mortgaged. This study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze whether increased land titling in women's names led to discernible improvements in women's economic security and household vulnerability. Using a matched sample of households from Vietnam's 2004 and 2008 Household Living Standards Survey, we find that on balance, land-use rights held exclusively by women or jointly by couples result in several beneficial effects including higher household expenditures, more education for girls and women, less housework, and lower household vulnerability to poverty. Results from interviews conducted in Vietnam support these conclusions, with evidence that one of the main channels through which these improvements occurred is increased bargaining power within the home.

Menon and Rodgers (2013)


Nationwide.Matched household-level datasets from Vietnam's 2004 and 2008 Household Living Standards Surveys (VHLSS).Land titling.Land use certification led to 5.3% higher per capita household expenditures when certificates were held by women and 3.6% higher when certificates were held by men (as compared to having no certificate). Certificates led to higher education for women, a lower proportion of women doing housework and fewer daily hours of housework. Certificates held by men and women both have an impact on poverty reduction.9,189 households.